Haryanto began racing cars in 2008, competing in the Asian Formula Renault Challenge, Formula Asia 2.0, and Formula BMW Pacific. He won 2 races within Formula Asia on his way to third in the championship.
Dominating Formula BMW Pacific in 2009, Haryanto moved to GP3 the following year as a driver for Manor. Winning 1 race during the season, he finished 5th overall. An inconsistent season in 2011 saw him drop to seventh overall despite 2 victories.
In 2012, he moved up to GP2 with Carlin, backed by Manor. The first season saw him secure a pole position and a fastest lap but he was 14th in the championship. The following season, 2013, he claimed his first podium with his first win coming in 2015. He finished fourth in the GP2 championship 2015.
On the 18th February 2016 he was confirmed to drive for Manor in 2016 in F1. He lost his drive mid-way through the season due to a cut in funding and was replaced by Esteban Ocon.